Waldorf School Barcelona
Architecture Firm: Eduard Balcells Architecture+Urbanism+Landscape, Ignasi Rius Architecture, Tigges Architekt
Design Team: Eduard Balcells, Ignasi Rius, Daniel Tigges
Clients: Fundació per a l’art d’educar de Rudolf Steiner
Engineering: Bernuz-Fernández (Structural engineering), Progetic (Mechanical engineering), Egaractiva (Quantity surveyor), Factors de Paisatge – Manuel Colominas (Agronomical engineer & Landscape consultant)
Collaborators: Manel Romero, architect, Elisabeth Terrisse, architect
Completion Year: 2018
Gross Built Area: 950m2
Project location: C/ Apel·les Mestres 11, Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès (Barcelona)
Photo credits: Adrià Goula
Recycling five buildings and a garden
The El Til·ler – Linden Tree- School is carefully inserted into a large, mature and abandoned private garden close to Barcelona. The complex is articulated along the existing main access path, which becomes a “rambla” -the Mediterranean name for high street- that ends at a square which opens to the landscape. Five of the six buildings which make up the school are existing modular pavilions of wood and steel which come from two other sites previously occupied by the school. These buildings are disassembled, transported and precisely reconfigured at the new site, adapting to the topography, existing vegetation, sun exposure and views. The sixth building, which is presented here, houses the kindergarten and the common spaces.
Sequences, horizons, light. Urban design as an expression of pedagogy
The school proposes a contemporary spatial expression of the Waldorf-Steiner pedagogy adapted to a Mediterranean climate. Thus, there are no interior corridors, and access to the classroom follows a gradual exterior spatial sequence: rambla – courtyard – porch – receiving hall – classroom. The horizons -the views- expand as the child grows, and the rotation of the classrooms on the topography gives them varying light qualities, both in intensity and color. Sequences, horizons and light personalize each classroom, emphasizing and accompanying the experience of growing up and learning.
Alcoves and frames. Architecture as an expression of pedagogy
The new building, which houses the kindergarten and common spaces, frees the plan from columns and concentrates them at the facades in the shape of thick buttresses, making it possible to place the kindergarten classrooms on top of a necessarily column-free multi-purpose hall. The spaces between the buttresses become alcoves, which are shaped according to the functional and pedagogical needs of each space. On the outside, the alcoves are contained within frames which order the facade and visually reduce the size of the building, bringing it closer to that of children.
The facades are entirely made of wood and are formed by large format prefabricated elements. The “balloon frame” elements have a three-layered pine panel finishing inside, and thermal insulation of wood-fibre panels. The covering is made of thermally-modified pine wood slats, which are fixed on a ventilated chamber. This so called thermowood will no longer require any subsequent maintenance.
Passive climatic comfort. A school without heating
The massive concrete structure, consisting of in situ columns and perimetral beams, with prefabricated concrete plates, provides a large thermal inertia, storing the heat generated by the high occupation of the classrooms and, at the same time, preventing excessive heating in summer.
Thus, the combination of the thermal insulation without thermal bridges, together with the large thermal inertia of the concrete structure, almost eliminate the need for heating in winter, where only a small electric radiator is used for each classroom in moments of cold peaks. Comfort during the rest of the year is achieved through cross ventilation, ventilated facades and external Venetian blinds.
The facade evolves from a flat surface into an inhabited space, the classroom turns into a house and the school becomes a small village along a rambla.